Model parameters very much depend on the dataset for which they are destined.

PyTorch Forecasting provides a .from_dataset() method for each model that takes a TimeSeriesDataSet and additional parameters that cannot directy derived from the dataset such as, e.g. learning_rate or hidden_size.

To tune models, optuna can be used. For example, tuning of the TemporalFusionTransformer is implemented by optimize_hyperparameters()

Selecting an architecture#

Criteria for selecting an architecture depend heavily on the use-case. There are multiple selection criteria and you should take into account. Here is an overview over the pros and cons of the implemented models:

Model comparison#



Multiple targets





Interactions between series

Flexible history length


Required computational resources (1-5, 5=most)






























x [1]












Size and type of available data#

One should particularly consider five criteria.

Availability of covariates#

If you have covariates, that is variables in addition to the target variable itself that hold information about the target, then your case will benefit from a model that can accomodate covariates. A model that cannot use covariates is NBeats.

Length of timeseries#

The length of time series has a significant impact on which model will work well. Unfortunately, most models are created and tested on very long timeseries while in practice short or a mix of short and long timeseries are often encountered. A model that can leverage covariates well such as the TemporalFusionTransformer will typically perform better than other models on short timeseries. It is a significant step from short timeseries to making cold-start predictions soley based on static covariates, i.e. making predictions without observed history. For example, this is only supported by the TemporalFusionTransformer but does not work tremendously well.

Number of timeseries and their relation to each other#

If your time series are related to each other (e.g. all sales of products of the same company), a model that can learn relations between the timeseries can improve accuracy. Not that only models that can process covariates can learn relationships between different timeseries. If the timeseries denote different entities or exhibit very similar patterns accross the board, a model such as NBeats will work as well.

If you have only one or very few timeseries, they should be very long in order for a deep learning approach to work well. Consider also more traditional approaches.

Type of prediction task#

Not every can do regression, classification or handle multiple targets. Some are exclusively geared towards a single task. For example, NBeats can only be used for regression on a single target without covariates while the TemporalFusionTransformer supports multiple targets and even hetrogeneous targets where some are continuous variables and others categorical, i.e. regression and classification at the same time. DeepAR can handle multiple targets but only works for regression tasks.

For long forecast horizon forecasts, NHiTS is an excellent choice as it uses interpolation capabilities.

Supporting uncertainty#

Not all models support uncertainty estimation. Those that do, might do so in different fashions. Non-parameteric models provide forecasts that are not bound to a given distribution while parametric models assume that the data follows a specific distribution.

The parametric models will be a better choice if you know how your data (and potentially error) is distributed. However, if you are missing this information or cannot make an educated guess that matches reality rather well, the model’s uncertainty estimates will be adversely impacted. In this case, a non-parameteric model will do much better.

DeepAR is an example for a parameteric model while the TemporalFusionTransformer can output quantile forecasts that can fit any distribution. Models based on normalizing flows marry the two worlds by providing a non-parameteric estimate of a full probability distribution. PyTorch Forecasting currently does not provide support for these but Pyro, a package for probabilistic programming does if you believe that your problem is uniquely suited to this solution.

Computational requirements#

Some models have simpler architectures and less parameters than others which can lead to significantly different training times. However, this not a general rule as demonstrated by Zhuohan et al. in Train Large, Then Compress: Rethinking Model Size for Efficient Training and Inference of Transformers. Because the data for a sample for timeseries models is often far samller than it is for computer vision or language tasks, GPUs are often underused and increasing the width of models can be an effective way to fully use a GPU. This can increase the speed of training while also improving accuracy. The other path to pushing utilization of a GPU up is increasing the batch size. However, increasing the batch size can adversly affect the generalization abilities of a trained network. Also, take into account that often computational resources are mainly necessary for inference/prediction. The upfront task of training a models will require developer time (also expensive!) but might be only a small part of the total compuational costs over the lifetime of a model.

The TemporalFusionTransformer is a rather large model but might benefit from being trained with. For example, NBeats or NHiTS are efficient models. Autoregressive models such as DeepAR might be quick to train but might be slow at inference time (in case of DeepAR this is driven by sampling results probabilistically multiple times, effectively increasing the computational burden linearly with the number of samples.

Implementing new architectures#

Please see the Using custom data and implementing custom models tutorial on how implement basic and more advanced models.

Every model should inherit from a base model in base_model.

class pytorch_forecasting.models.base_model.BaseModel(log_interval: int | float = -1, log_val_interval: float | int | None = None, learning_rate: float | List[float] = 0.001, log_gradient_flow: bool = False, loss: Metric = SMAPE(), logging_metrics: ModuleList = ModuleList(), reduce_on_plateau_patience: int = 1000, reduce_on_plateau_reduction: float = 2.0, reduce_on_plateau_min_lr: float = 1e-05, weight_decay: float = 0.0, optimizer_params: Dict[str, Any] | None = None, monotone_constaints: Dict[str, int] = {}, output_transformer: Callable | None = None, optimizer='Ranger')[source]

BaseModel from which new timeseries models should inherit from. The hparams of the created object will default to the parameters indicated in __init__().

The forward() method should return a named tuple with at least the entry prediction that contains the network’s output. See the function’s documentation for more details.

The idea of the base model is that common methods do not have to be re-implemented for every new architecture. The class is a [LightningModule]( and follows its conventions. However, there are important additions:

  • You need to specify a loss attribute that stores the function to calculate the MultiHorizonLoss for backpropagation.

  • The from_dataset() method can be used to initialize a network using the specifications of a dataset. Often, parameters such as the number of features can be easily deduced from the dataset. Further, the method will also store how to rescale normalized predictions into the unnormalized prediction space. Override it to pass additional arguments to the __init__ method of your network that depend on your dataset.

  • The transform_output() method rescales the network output using the target normalizer from thedataset.

  • The step() method takes care of calculating the loss, logging additional metrics defined in the logging_metrics attribute and plots of sample predictions. You can override this method to add custom interpretations or pass extra arguments to the networks forward method.

  • The on_epoch_end() method can be used to calculate summaries of each epoch such as statistics on the encoder length, etc and needs to return the outputs.

  • The predict() method makes predictions using a dataloader or dataset. Override it if you need to pass additional arguments to forward by default.

To implement your own architecture, it is best to go throught the Using custom data and implementing custom models and to look at existing ones to understand what might be a good approach.


class Network(BaseModel):

    def __init__(self, my_first_parameter: int=2, loss=SMAPE()):

    def forward(self, x):
        normalized_prediction = self.module(x)
        prediction = self.transform_output(prediction=normalized_prediction, target_scale=x["target_scale"])
        return self.to_network_output(prediction=prediction)

BaseModel for timeseries forecasting from which to inherit from

  • log_interval (Union[int, float], optional) – Batches after which predictions are logged. If < 1.0, will log multiple entries per batch. Defaults to -1.

  • log_val_interval (Union[int, float], optional) – batches after which predictions for validation are logged. Defaults to None/log_interval.

  • learning_rate (float, optional) – Learning rate. Defaults to 1e-3.

  • log_gradient_flow (bool) – If to log gradient flow, this takes time and should be only done to diagnose training failures. Defaults to False.

  • loss (Metric, optional) – metric to optimize, can also be list of metrics. Defaults to SMAPE().

  • logging_metrics (nn.ModuleList[MultiHorizonMetric]) – list of metrics that are logged during training. Defaults to [].

  • reduce_on_plateau_patience (int) – patience after which learning rate is reduced by a factor of 10. Defaults to 1000

  • reduce_on_plateau_reduction (float) – reduction in learning rate when encountering plateau. Defaults to 2.0.

  • reduce_on_plateau_min_lr (float) – minimum learning rate for reduce on plateua learning rate scheduler. Defaults to 1e-5

  • weight_decay (float) – weight decay. Defaults to 0.0.

  • optimizer_params (Dict[str, Any]) – additional parameters for the optimizer. Defaults to {}.

  • monotone_constaints (Dict[str, int]) – dictionary of monotonicity constraints for continuous decoder variables mapping position (e.g. "0" for first position) to constraint (-1 for negative and +1 for positive, larger numbers add more weight to the constraint vs. the loss but are usually not necessary). This constraint significantly slows down training. Defaults to {}.

  • output_transformer (Callable) – transformer that takes network output and transforms it to prediction space. Defaults to None which is equivalent to lambda out: out["prediction"].

  • optimizer (str) – Optimizer, “ranger”, “sgd”, “adam”, “adamw” or class name of optimizer in torch.optim or pytorch_optimizer. Alternatively, a class or function can be passed which takes parameters as first argument and a lr argument (optionally also weight_decay). Defaults to “ranger”.

Details and available models#

See the API documentation for further details on available models:


Model with additional methods for autoregressive models.


Model with additional methods for autoregressive models with covariates.


BaseModel from which new timeseries models should inherit from.


Model with additional methods using covariates.


Baseline model that uses last known target value to make prediction.


DeepAR Network.


MLP on the decoder.


Initialize NBeats Model - use its from_dataset() method if possible.


Initialize N-HiTS Model - use its from_dataset() method if possible.


Embedding layer for categorical variables including groups of categorical variables.

pytorch_forecasting.models.nn.rnn.GRU(*args, ...)

GRU that can handle zero-length sequences


LSTM that can handle zero-length sequences


Get LSTM or GRU.


Recurrent Network.


Temporal Fusion Transformer for forecasting timeseries - use its from_dataset() method if possible.